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 Four Principles for a Noble Character

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Four Principles for a Noble Character Empty
InläggRubrik: Four Principles for a Noble Character   Four Principles for a Noble Character Emptylör nov 29, 2008 4:09 pm

Från: Farihah-فريحه (Ursprungligt meddelande) Skickat: 2007-01-16 12:03


Four Principles for a Noble Character أركان الأخلاق الحسنة
Shaykhul Islaam Ibnul Qayim شيخ الاسلام ابن القيم



“It is not imagined that one can have noble character except if it is founded upon four pillars:

The First: Sabr (Patience)

The Second: 'Iffah (Chastity)

The Third: Shujaa'ah (Courage)

The Fourth: Adl (Justice)

Patience, inspires him to be tolerant, control his anger, endure the harms that he receives from others, to be forbearing and deliberate in his decisions. It motivates him to be gentle and not to be rash or hasty.

Chastity, inspires him to avoid every imprudent characteristic, whether in statement or action, and encourages him to have a sense of modesty and integrity which is the epitome of all good. It prevents him from fornication, stinginess, lying, backbiting and spreading tales to cause separation and discord between the people.

Courage, inspires him to have a sense of self esteem, to emphasize high and noble manners and to make it apart of his natural disposition. It also encourages him to exert himself and to be generous, which is in essence, true courage and it leads to strong will and self determination. It encourages him to distance himself from his ardent lowly desires, to control his anger, and to be forbearing because by such, he can control his temper, take it by the reins and curb his violent and destructive behavior just as the Messenger (Sallahu alaihi wa salam) said:

“The Strong is not the one who can wrestle his opponent to the ground but rather the strong is the one who can control himself when he gets angry.”
This is true genuine courage and it is the sole trait that the slave utilizes to conquer his opponent.

Justice, encourages him to be impartial in his behavior with people and to be moderate between the two extremes of negligence and extremism. It motivates him to be generous and kind which is the middle course between absolute degradation and arrogance, and to make this apart of his disposition and makeup. It encourages him to be courageous which is the middle course between cowardice and imprudence, and to be forbearing which is the middle course between extreme unnecessary anger and ignominy.

These four virtuous characteristics are the axis and provenance of all noble manners and the foundation of all repugnant and ignominious characteristics are built upon four pillars:

The First: Jahl (Ignorance)

The Second: Dhulm (Oppression)

The Third: Shahwah (following ones lowly desires)

The Fourth: Ghadab (Anger)

Ignorance, allows him to view good in the form of evil and evil in the form of good, and to consider that which is complete to be incomplete and that which is incomplete to be complete.

Oppression, causes him to put things in places which are not appropriate for them, so he gets angry when its time to be happy and he is happy when its time to be angry. He is ignorant and hasty when its time to be deliberate and deliberate when its time to be hasty, he is stingy when it is time to be generous and generous when its time to be stingy. He is weak when it is time to be courageous and assume responsibility, and he assumes responsibility when it is time to take a step back (and let someone else undertake the initiative). He is gentle and lenient when it is time to be harsh and firm and he is harsh and firm when it is time to be lenient. He is humble when it is time to be superior and arrogant when it is time to be humble.

Following (his) lowly desires, encourages him to be diligent in obtaining that which the soul ardently desires, to be stingy and greedy. It encourages him to adorn himself with all types of despicable and imprudent characteristics.

Anger, incites him to be arrogant, jealous, envious, to hold enmity of others and to be imprudent and shameless.

The foundation of these four repugnant and blameworthy characteristics are two pillars:

Either, Extreme Self ignominy.

Or Extreme Self Pride.




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وحسن الخلق يقوم على أربعة أركان لا يتصور قيام ساقه إلا عليها: الصبر, العفة, الشجاعة, العدل الصبر يحمله على الاحتمال وكظم الغيظ وكف الأذى والحلم والأناة والرفق وعدم الطيش والعجلة, العفة تحمله على اجتناب الرذائل من القول والفعل وتحمله على الحياء وهو رأس كل خير وتمنعه من الفحشاء والبخل والكذب والغيبة والنميمة. الشجاعة تحمله على عزة لنفس وإيثار معالي الأخلاق و الشيم وعلى البذل والذي هو شجاعة النفس و قوتها على إخراج المحبوب ومفارقته وتحمله على كظم الغيظ والحلم فإنه بقوة نفسه و شجاعتها يمسك عنائها ويكبحه بلجامها عن النزع والبطش كما قال صلى الله عليه و سلم :ليس الشديد با لصرعة وإنما الشديد الذي يملك نفسه عند الغضب(متفق عليه), وهو حقيقة الشجاعة وهي ملكة يقتدر بها العبد على قهر خصمه, العدل يحمله على اعتدل أخلاقه وتوسطه فيما بين طرفي الإفراط و التفريط فيحمله على خلق الجود و السخاء الذي هو توسط بين الذل و القحة و على خلت الشجاعة الذي هو توسط بين الجبن و التهور وعلى خلق الحلم الذي هو توسط بين الغضب والمهانة وسقوط النفس ومنشأ جميع الأخلاق الفاضلة من هذه الأربعة ومنشأ جميع الأخلاق السافلة وبناؤها على أربعة أركان: الجهل, الظلم, الشهوة و الغضب الجهل يريه الحسن في صورة القبيح و القبيح في صورة الحسن و الكمال نقصا والنقص كمالا والظلم يحمله على وضع الشيء في غير موضعه فيغضب في موضع الرضى فيرضى في موضع الغضب ويجهل في موضع الأناة ويبخل في موضع البذل ويبذل في موضع البخل و يحجم في موضع الإقدام ويقدم في موضع الإحجام يلين في موضع الشدة ويشتد في موضع اللين ويتواضع في موضع العزة ويتكبر في موضع التواضع, الشهوة تحمله على الحرص و الشح والبخل و عدم العفة و النهمة و الجشع و الذل والدناءات كلها, و الغضب يحمله على الكبر والحقد والحسد و العدوان و السفه ويتركب من بين كل خلقين من هذه الأخلاق و ملاك هذه الأربعة أصلان: إفراط النفس في الضعف و إفراطها في القوة




Madaarij ul Salikeen Vol.2 P.308 مدارج السالكين 2/308
Translated by: Abu Azzubayr Shadeed Muhammad المترجم: أبو الزبير شديد محمد

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